2-2-AIWDesign Perspective - Application (Eng)

Published on 29 March 2015
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Item Environment installation / Drawing / conception
Course Perspective
Chapter Application
Period of training required
Publication Date
End of training period (suggested) 14/04/2015


How to apply perspective

You can imply perspective by the relative size of objects, layering foreground, mid-ground, and background elements, changing focus by sharpening or softening details, and lightening or darkening elements as the atmosphere changes the quality of “seeing” things in the distance.
If you can combine linear perspective with natural perspective, you can make a convincing drawing that easily allows the observer to “suspend belief” and be drawn into your creation.

One Point Perspective

(Single Point - One Vanishing Point)

single point perspective

The front plane of the object is directly in front of you, verticals parallel, and all lines of perspective meet at a single vanishing point on the horizon. Objects you draw in one point perspective are drawn face on.
1) Draw a horizon line and center a vanishing point.
2) Draw a square or rectangle off to the side of the vanishing point, overlapping the horizon line.
3) Lightly draw (or visualize) orthogonal "visual rays" from the vanishing point through the edges of your object.
4) Then draw the vertical lines of the back of the object using the rays as a measure.

 Two Point Perspective

(Two Vanishing Points)

two point perspective
When an object or viewpoint is rotated and two sides of an object are angled away from your view, each side of the object has it's own unique lines of perspective. You now must use two vanishing points, one for each plane of the surface in view with the vertical lines parallel.
1) Draw a horizon line and place two vanishing points on the far right and left sides.
2) Draw a vertical line indicating the closest edge of the object facing you.
3) Lightly draw (or visualize) orthogonal "visual rays" from each vanishing point to the line of the front edge of your object.
4) Then draw the vertical lines of the left and right edges of the object using the rays as a measure.

Three Point Perspective

(Bird’s Eye, Worm’s Eye - Three Vanishing Points)

If your point of observation is higher or lower a third vanishing point comes into use. Think of looking up at tall skyscrapers and seeing three vertical sides angle to a third vanishing point, far distant, as they reach toward the sky. From the Worm’s Eye view (looking up) the upper vanishing point is called the Zenith. From the Bird’s Eye or Helicopter view (looking down) the lower vanishing point is called the Nadir.
1) Draw a horizon line and place two vanishing points on the far right and left sides.
2) Draw a vertical line bisecting the horizon line and place a third vanishing point above (or below) the horizon line.
3) Lightly draw (or visualize) orthogonal "visual rays" from the top vanishing point past the horizon line.
4) Then draw orthogonal lines from the left and right vanishing points and bisect the orthogonal lines from the top vanishing points using the rays as a measure.
Surfaces that travel away from the viewer, on the other hand, converge towards a single ‘vanishing point‘. This is a point that is located directly in front of the viewer’s eyes, on a ‘horizon line’ (also known as an ‘eye level line’), as illustrated in the photo below:
All receding edges of the buildings in this one point perspective photo angle towards the single vanishing point. The position of the vanishing point tells us that the photographer was crouching down, with his eye level lowered.
It is possible to draw over photographs to identify vanishing points, horizon lines and true shapes. Studying the work of famous artists can also help you gain an understanding of one point perspective, as shown in the example by Vincent van Gogh below.
‘Bedroom in arles’ by Vincent van Gogh – identifying perspective lines
Exercise yourself; identify the horizontal line and vanishing point(s) of the pictures you are taking with your camera or the master pieces of art you can get online.

Exercice : A chair

The purpose of the exercice is to draw a chair (made of rectangle parallelepipoid in 3D)

First draw an horizontal line with two vanishing point, just like below;

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Like for a square or a cube, draw a front edge of the chair. In this exemple, start from one of the chair leg front edge and then draw lines starting from the two vanish points :

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From vanishing points, draw crossing lines (the thickness is up to you) and link intersection points:

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Now, draw the paralells lines linking the intersection points (see below), the first chair leg is drawn.

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Draw the other legs just like it ahs been done above, in the process the seat of the chair thickness can be drawn too.

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The seat of the chair can then be drawn as usual by extending the lines from the vanishing point until the intersection point.

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Here is the chair with four legs and seat.

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It's nearly the en, the cahir back need the be drawn.

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Erase fondation lines to get a more clear and clean output.

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The chair legs are too long, this can easily be fixed as you can see below

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With the perspective fundamentals in mind you can easily size the chair as you wish.


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